7 Tips To Increase Your Productivity


With more demands, and what seems like less time, we are all looking for ways to increase productivity during our work days. Here are 7 simple tips to give you back some control in your work day and help you become more productive.
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1. Create a To-Do list
Before you start each day, make a list of your must do items. This keeps you on task and can bring you back to focus when you keep your list in front of you while working. We suggest you make it a paper list so it is visible at all time.
2. Take breaks
We all seem to overwork ourselves and don’t realize when we need a break. Allow yourself to take breaks when you find that you are getting overwhelmed, stressed, if you start losing concentration, or just need to clear your mind for a few minutes. Step away from your desk take a walk around the office or just stand up and stretch.
3. Weed out distractions
Social Media, push notifications and today’s technology make it easy to have constant distractions. Turn off the notifications on your phone and computer except for crucial appointment reminders so you are not constantly distracted. It is easy to get side tracked from one text or notification and realize 20 minutes later that you have completely lost focus.
4. Designate time to read emails
Allow yourself to check emails in the morning, after lunch and before you leave the office. When you are constantly checking your inbox and reading or replying to every email, it sucks down your productivity time. If you are sending out emails and need them to be responded to promptly, assign a Priority tag to them.
5. Sleep early and get up early
Take a look at every top executive, CEO or successful businessperson and you will find that they all have one main thing in common – they wake up early. Waking up early gives them time to get their morning started without being rushed, stressed and limited on time. Going to bed early ensures they are rested and recharged to start the next day.
6. Focus on one thing at a time
We have all heard that multitasking is detrimental for productivity. It reduces the performance of any task that we do when not being fully focused. Studies have shown that our brain is strained when we are constantly shifting between multiple tasks at one time. Would you rather complete one task with excellent results, or 3 things with mediocre results?
7. De-clutter and organize your environment
When you are working in a cluttered environment, it creates unnecessary stress on your mind and body. It is like having a stack of unopened mail that you know you need to get to. Not to mention, it is a distraction. Clean up your workspace so you can stay focused and more productive.
These tips are provided to you by WIH Resource Group, Inc
WIH Resource Group provides the following useful tips to improve your productivity.

Source: WIH Resource Group

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ABOUT WIH RESOURCE GROUP

Celebrating a decade in business, WIH Resource Group is a global provider of professional technical and management support services to a broad range of markets, including waste management, recycling, financials, transportation, M&A due diligence and support, alternative fuel fleet conversions, facilities, environmental, energy for private sector business and government clients.

WIH Resource Group is a leader in all of the key markets that it serves. WIH Resource Group provides a blend of global reach, local knowledge, innovation and technical excellence in delivering solutions that create, enhance and sustain the world’s built, natural and social environments.  WIH Resource Group serves clients in more than 175 key markets internationally.

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Solid Waste Landfills are Producing Pipeline Quality Natural Gas – WIH Resource Group


With improved processing technologies and attractive natural gas prices, more landfills are producing pipeline-quality gas.

After several years of inactivity, the number of high-Btu landfill gas energy projects is increasing. Since 2006, 11 construction startups and three expansions of high-Btu projects have taken place, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP).

Today’s high-Btu projects employ the latest advancements in technology to remove carbon dioxide and other impurities from landfill gas, resulting in a gas that is more than 95 percent methane and has a heating value equivalent to natural gas. Recent improvements in technology and higher returns on the finished gas have made high-Btu projects a viable option for more landfills — including facilities with lower gas flows.

Ordinary landfill gas consists of roughly 50 percent methane — which is the primary component of natural gas — 50 percent carbon dioxide, a small amount of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) and other trace impurities. Removing the carbon dioxide and other impurities from landfill gas doubles its heating value, making it comparable to natural gas, which has a heating value of 1,025 Btu per cubic feet (ft3) to 1,095 Btu/ft3.

High-Btu landfill gas is most often injected directly into natural gas pipelines. Once in the pipeline, the gas blends with the natural gas and is distributed to a gas utility’s customers.

The Trends

Up until 2006, the growth of high-Btu projects was flat, averaging around one startup or expansion per year, as illustrated in Figure 1 on p. 46. In 2007, however, the number of startups and expansions began to grow steadily. In fact, 18 of the 25 high-Btu projects operating as of August 2009 were started or expanded during the last three years. LMOP expects a total of 10 projects to begin operation in 2009, including five that have come on line already. (Those five are Oak Grove Landfill in Winder, Ga.; Live Oak Landfill in Conley, Ga.; Carter Valley Landfill in Church Hill, Tenn.; Greenwood Farms Landfill in Tyler, Texas; and Turnkey Recycling & Environmental Enterprises in Rochester, N.H.)

In 2007, the Rumpke SLF Landfill in Cincinnati completed a $15 million expansion of its high-Btu processing plant, which began operating at the site in 1986. The expansion increased the processing of landfill gas from 9 million cubic feet per day (mmft3/day) to 15 mmft3/day. According to Rick O’Mahony, vice president of operations of Pittsburgh-based Montauk Energy, which is the developer and owner/operator of the plant, the plant was expanded to take advantage of increasing volumes of landfill gas. “We could either flare the gas at some marginal cost or expand the plant to provide increased gas processing with the associated sales of high-Btu gas to the gas utility,” says O’Mahony, who has helped develop six high-Btu landfill gas projects.

The three key factors that have contributed to the recent growth of high-Btu landfill gas projects are low wholesale electricity prices, high natural gas wholesale prices and improvements in gas separation technologies.

Wholesale prices for electricity and natural gas significantly affect which type of project will be profitable. Over the last several years, national wholesale electricity prices have been relatively steady, as illustrated in Figure 2 on p. 46. Meanwhile, natural gas prices have increased significantly since 2001 (see Figure 3 on p. 46). When natural gas prices rose from 2005 through 2008 — approaching $9 per million Btus — many landfills were able to pursue high-Btu projects.

Improvements in technology also have helped spur the growth of high-Btu landfill gas projects by making these projects feasible at landfills that provide less than 3,000 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of landfill gas. For example, manufacturers have reduced the cost to build gas-processing equipment and have reduced pressure requirements, which have decreased operating costs.

David Mauney, an experienced landfill gas project developer and consultant with The Hunter Group, explains how high-Btu projects are not just for larger landfills any more. “Initially, high-Btu projects required at least 3,000 scfm. But with improvements in the technology today, you can go as low as 1,500 to 2,000 scfm.” LMOP has recorded at least 10 high-Btu projects at landfills that provided less than 3,000 scfm of landfill gas to the project.

Meeting the Specifications

Landfill gas must be thoroughly cleaned and upgraded before it can be sold to a natural gas utility. To meet the typical specifications for pipeline-quality landfill gas (see chart on p. 48), several steps are required.

The final step, carbon dioxide removal, is the main component of a high-Btu project. This is because carbon dioxide constitutes approximately half of the raw landfill gas, and its removal requires specialized separation equipment. Removal of NMOCs, hydrocarbons and siloxanes often is achieved concurrently with carbon dioxide removal. To create pipeline quality gas, a combination of technologies may be necessary, depending on the composition of the landfill gas. Here are the four steps to creating pipeline quality gas:

  1. Minimize oxygen and nitrogen.To minimize nitrogen and oxygen levels, a landfill may need to upgrade its gas collection system to prevent air intrusion. Landfill gas collection systems operate under a vacuum, and oxygen and nitrogen from the atmosphere can be drawn through the surface of the landfill and into the gas collection system. Air intrusion can be minimized by adjusting well vacuums and repairing leaks in the landfill cover.
  2. Remove moisture.To remove moisture, many landfills employ a chiller or desiccant. Compressing and cooling the landfill gas further removes moisture. For high-Btu projects, removing the moisture (measured as water vapor) prevents interference with the subsequent compression and separation processes.
  3. Remove hydrogen sulfide.Hydrogen sulfide can be removed using liquid absorption, either with chemical or physical solvents and usually in a continuous process, or through adsorption on a solid reactant product in a batch process.
  4. Remove carbon dioxide.Four carbon dioxide removal technologies, described below, have been applied at landfills in the United States: scrubbing, membrane separation, molecular sieve (pressure swing adsorption) and CO2Wash.

Scrubbing uses a solvent that preferentially absorbs carbon dioxide and other gases into the liquid phase (also known as liquid absorption or physical solvent treating). Early high-Btu plants relied primarily on scrubbing technology, including the plants at the Fresh Kills Landfill in New York City and the McCarty Road Landfill in Houston, both of which began operations in the 1980s.

For these projects, large-scale cleanup technology was built on site, modeled after natural gas processing plants. Significant capital was required to build the processing plants and compress the landfill gas to appropriate pressure levels — 600 pounds-force per square inch gauge (psig). Scrubbing technology has therefore been applied historically at high-volume landfills that could generate enough gas (i.e., greater than 6,000 scfm) to ensure long-term returns. Recent technology advancements, however, have lowered the pressure requirements to around 400 psig and made smaller projects (those less than 3,000 scfm) possible.

One of the first applications of a gas treatment system on a smaller scale occurred at the Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, Kan., in 2001. The landfill installed a modular scrubbing plant on a skid, specifically developed for smaller applications. According to the project developer, South Tex Renewables, the skid-mounted design is less expensive and easier to install and operate than previous technology. Pressure requirements are 400 psig. LMOP’s national database shows that five physical solvent high-Btu landfill gas projects have come on line since 2000 at landfills with gas flow as low as 1,000 scfm.

With membrane separation, different gases pass through porous membranes at different rates based on molecule size, allowing for the separation of compounds. Carbon dioxide passes through the membrane approximately 20 times faster than methane. In the past, a drawback to this technology’s application in the landfill gas industry was that pressure of around 600 psig was required to push the carbon dioxide through the membranes. Recent technology advancements, however, have lowered the pressure requirements to around 200 psig, thereby making smaller project sizes (less than 3,000 scfm) possible.

Membrane separation is relatively easy to operate and maintain. LMOP’s national database shows that nine of the high-Btu projects that started up since 2000 use membrane separation technology to remove carbon dioxide. More than half of those projects use technology that consists of a pre-treatment skid to remove NMOCs and a series of membrane modules to remove carbon dioxide and some oxygen.

Molecular sieve (pressure swing adsorption) uses vapor phase activated carbon for NMOC removal and a molecular sieve for carbon dioxide removal. The molecular sieve media preferentially adsorbs carbon dioxide on the media surface. When the media is loaded with carbon dioxide, the molecular sieve is taken off line, and the media is regenerated through a depressurization and purge cycle. (The process is therefore often referred to as pressure swing adsorption or PSA.) Molecular sieve media that selectively remove nitrogen also are available. PSAs can achieve some incidental oxygen removal. Four projects that started up or expanded in 2007 and 2008 use PSA, including the Rumpke Landfill in Cincinnati.

CO2Wash is a patented process that uses liquid carbon dioxide obtained from landfill gas as a solvent. After moisture removal and compression, landfill gas moves upward through a three-story column. Refrigeration at the top of the column condenses the carbon dioxide into liquid form. A portion of the liquid carbon dioxide washes down the column, cleansing volatile organic contaminants from the gas. The process produces two products: food-grade carbon dioxide (meaning the gas is 99.99 percent carbon dioxide) and medium-Btu gas (70 percent methane) that is virtually free of siloxanes and volatile organic compounds. The medium-Btu gas can be used as fuel, or it can undergo membrane processing to produce high-Btu gas.

Looking Ahead

The price of natural gas will continue to influence the number of new high-Btu projects. For 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts an average annual price of $4.67 per million Btus, and for 2010, $5.87 per million Btus. Beyond 2010, EIA projects a steady increase, nearing $8 per million Btus by 2020.

Two new projects have already come on line in 2009, with six more expected. The upcoming projects employ three different carbon removal technologies: scrubbing, membrane, and molecular sieve. Developers and technology providers will continue to demonstrate and refine the technology, paving the way for even more projects at landfills of all sizes.

What is LMOP?

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) promotes landfill gas as a renewable local energy resource. As of June 2009, LMOP has encouraged and facilitated the development of approximately 410 landfill gas (LFG) energy projects since the voluntary program’s inception in 1994. These projects have prevented the release of more than 33.8 million metric tons of carbon equivalent into the atmosphere over the past 14 years. This reduction has the same environmental benefit as preventing the carbon dioxide emissions that would result from the consumption of nearly 197 million barrels of oil.

As of December 2008, more than 790 LMOP Partners have signed voluntary agreements to work with EPA to help promote and advance LFG energy. Today, approximately 480 LFG energy projects are operating nationwide, and about 130 projects are under construction or development. LMOP estimates that roughly 520 additional landfills present attractive opportunities for project development.

Sources: Waste Age Magazine and WIH Resource Group

Should you have any questions about this news or general questions about our diversified services, please contact Bob Wallace, Principal & VP of Client Solutions at WIH Resource Group and Waste Savings, Inc. at admin@wihrg.com

Feel free to visit our websites for additional information on our services at: http://www.wihrg.com and http://www.wastesavings.net and our daily blog at https://wihresourcegroup.wordpress.com

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Despite Economy, Waste-by-Rail Interest is on the Rise by both the Private Sector and Public Agencies


Rail HaulMost recently, WIH Resource Group has been contacted and retained by a range of public and private sector clients to assist in performing wastebyrail feasibility studies, facility siting studies, waste generator radius market studies and to conduct financial analysis for various clients throughout the nation. 
While waste volumes are down on average between 25% and 35%, a growing interest in railroading waste from large metro areas (Cities) to more remote rail-served, or near rail- served, landfills is on the rise.
The timing of this renewed interest in Wastebyrail is interesting as general freight volumes for the major Class One Railroads are down considerable so the railroads’ interest in potential Wastebyrail programs might be of greater interest now then when other freight is maximizing the railroads’ system capacity.
Of particular interest is that Investor mogul Warren Buffett and his investing company, Berkshire Hathaway, made a bid last week to acquire BNSF Railway for $34 billion.
BNSF LocomotiveBerkshire Hathaway already owned about 22 percent of BNSF, the nation’s second largest Class One railroad.
 
The deal, which including Berkshire’s previous investment and the assumption of $10 billion in Burlington Northern debt brings the total value to $44 billion, represents what Mr. Buffett said was a big bet on the United States Railroads.
 
He told CNBC in an interview that railroad operators cannot do well unless American businesses were producing goods and customers were buying them.

This move by Buffett will most likely spur even more interests in railroad transportation.  Railroad transportation compared to Trucking allows for an approximate 3:1 ratio of weight and volume per rail car to that of an individual truck.  By comparison, and on a per ton calculation, rail emits a much smaller percentage of harmful diesel-fuel carcinogens than that of trucking.  In addition, the cost for rail transportation is almost a third to that of trucking costs for the same traffic lane. 

In terms of the future of Wastebyrail, it makes the most economic sense when regional disposal rates exceed $65-$75.00 per ton, such as in the Northeast part of the U.S. and Northwest, and where the nearest regional rail-served landfill is between 250-350 miles one way from the waste generators.  Seattle, Los Angeles, New York and New Jersey are a few examples of where Wastebyrail makes sound economic sense, especially as siting new landfills is increasingly more difficult in large metropolitan areas.
   
WIH Resource Group is a leader in Providing Client Specific Recycling and Waste Management Solutions.  WIH Resource Group provides its clients with recycling and comprehensive business solutions, specializing in, among other services, waste management operational performance assessments, transportation / logistics, alternative fuel use, solid waste planning, waste and recycling market studies and environmental services.
 
WIH Resource Group also has in-depth experience in assessing needs and enhancing recycling programs.  WIH Resource Group and its unique team have extensive program background and experience assisting local government clients assessing and optimizing their recycling programs. 
 
As an example, in the past WIH has completed multi-facility Material Recovery Facility (MRF) performance assessments for King County, Washington and recently completed assisting Apache County Arizona in conducting a recycling feasibility study.

Sources: WIH Resource Group & Berkshire Hathaway

Should you have any questions about this news or general questions about our diversified services, please contact Bob Wallace, Principal & VP of Client Solutions at WIH Resource Group and Waste Savings, Inc. at admin@wihrg.com

Feel free to visit our websites for additional information on our services at: http://www.wihrg.com and http://www.wastesavings.net and our daily blog at https://wihresourcegroup.wordpress.com

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On the Origin of Species: The Preservation of Favoured Traces by Ben Fry


We often think of scientific ideas, such as Darwin’s theory of evolution, as fixed notions that are accepted as finished. In fact, Darwin’s On the Origin of Species evolved over the course of several editions he wrote, edited, and updated during his lifetime.  The first English edition was approximately 150,000 words and the sixth is a much larger 190,000 words. In the changes are refinements and shifts in ideas — whether increasing the weight of a statement, adding details, or even a change in the idea itself.

Charles Darwin

The second edition, for instance, adds a notable “by the Creator” to the closing paragraph, giving greater attribution to a higher power. In another example, the phrase “survival of the fittest” — usually considered central to the theory and often attributed to Darwin — instead came from British philosopher Herbert Spencer, and didn’t appear until the fifth edition of the text. Using the six editions as a guide, we can see the unfolding and clarification of Darwin’s ideas as he sought to further develop his theory during his lifetime.

This project is made possible by the hard work of Dr. John van Wyhe, et al. who run The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. The text for each edition was sourced from their careful transcription of Darwin’s books, and Dr. van Wyhe generously granted permission to use the text. This piece is a simpler version of a larger effort that looks at the changes between editions, and is intended as the first in a series looking at how the book evolved over time. Built with Processing. More about the project can be found here.

Source: Dr. John van Wyhe, Newsweek, Ben Fry, Charles Darwin & WIH Resource Group

If you have any questions about this news or general questions about our diversified services, please contact Bob Wallace, Principal & VP of Client Solutions at WIH Resource Group and Waste Savings, Inc. at admin@wihrg.com

Feel free to visit our websites for additional information on our services at: http://www.wihrg.comhttp://www.wastesavings.net and our daily blog at https://wihresourcegroup.wordpress.com

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New Partnership to Generate Gasoline from Garbage – WIH Resource Group


The largest solid waste handler in the U.S., Waste Management, Inc., is partnering with Valero Energy to invest in a technology that can turn biomass into high-octane gasoline.

The technology is called MixAlco™ and was developed by Terrabon. MixAlco uses solid waste from landfills as well as sewage to ferment it into organic salts, which are then refined into renewable gasoline, jet fuel or diesel. The refining process will take place at Valero facilities, and Waste Management will be involved in securing organic waste to produce the salts.

Photo: Waste Management Waste Management will be partnering with Valero Energy to convert solid waste from landfills into a high-octane gasoline. Photo: Waste Management 

“We see waste as a resource to be recovered in a way that protects and enhances the environment,” said Carl Rush, vice president of Organic Growth at Waste Management.

“This investment in Terrabon, together with Waste Management’s other renewable energy initiatives, will help move Waste Management toward meeting two of its sustainability goals: doubling its renewable energy production and investing in emerging technologies for managing waste.”

The resulting gasoline can be mixed with other fuels as it provides fewer blending challenges than ethanol and has a higher energy value.

Terrabon claims that MixAlco can be manufactured for $2 per gallon, compared with more than $3 per gallon for gasoline made with other technology. The company adds that the waste from a city of 250,000 residents can generate 6 million gallons of gasoline annually.

Waste Not, Want Not

Waste-to-energy is hardly a new concept, as Waste Management, Inc. alone operates 17 waste-to-energy plants in the U.S. The process involves taking municipal solid waste and placing it in a furnace, which produces electricity or steam.

A waste-to-energy plant is capable of generating 40,000 kilowatts of energy of electrical energy which can then be sold to utility companies. The remaining waste after this process is reduced by up to 90 percent, and further materials such as ferrous metal can be extracted and recycled.

According to the Department of Energy, the U.S. currently incinerates 14 percent of its solid waste to produce energy.

Source: Waste Management, Valero Energy, Terrabon,  and WIH Resource Group

If you have any questions about this news or general questions about our diversified services, please contact Bob Wallace, Principal & VP of Client Solutions at WIH Resource Group and Waste Savings, Inc. at admin@wihrg.com

Feel free to visit our websites for additional information on our services at: http://www.wihrg.com and http://www.wastesavings.net and our daily blog at https://wihresourcegroup.wordpress.com

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NATIONAL RECYCLING COALITION (NRC) LIMPS INTO CHAPTER 7 FILING


On the heels of the failed vote to merge with Keep America Beautiful (KAB), the National Recycling Coalition (NRC) Board voted to pursue a Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing, ending the organization’s 30-year run as the nation’s largest non-profit recycling advocacy organization.

“This really is a very sad day for an organization that doesn’t get nearly the attention it deserves,” said Bob Gedert, executive director of the California Resource Recovery Association and NRC Board member. “We need to acknowledge the truly heroic efforts of everyone who worked so hard to make this organization work as long as it did.”

Despite reluctantly voting in favor, Gedert had advocated a plan to bring the organization into Chapter 11, in order to maintain bargaining power and confidence with creditors and donors.

However, the vote to pursue a Chapter 7 filing is not the end of NRC’s money problems. At the end of the September 2nd business day, the organization had approximately $619 in cash on hand. With legal fees associated with pursuing a filing in the tens of thousands of dollars, some board members have offered to personally donate the funds necessary for the organization to move into bankruptcy court.

Of additional concern was the fate of America Recycles Day. Just prior to the vote to pursue the bankruptcy option, the board unanimously voted to not accept an offer from KAB to accelerate the final payment of $50,000 on the advice of legal counsel. Several board members were concerned that America Recycles Day could be undervalued in the current KAB contract, thus the board will try to pursue a higher value in bankruptcy court.

In the comment period following the conclusion of the board vote, some members expressed hope that the organization might be reborn following the bankruptcy process.

“It might be easier to build a new organization and a new donor base if we are not saddled by [NRC’s] obligations,” mused David Struhs, International Paper’s vice president of Environmental Affairs.

Outside the board, reactions differed:

“The Board is saying that there is hope to rebuild NRC, but I don’t see it happening once this message is sent out,” said Amy Perlmutter of Perlmutter Associates. “I can’t imagine anyone wanting to donate time or energy to an organization that is dissolving. I do not understand why they couldn’t put [the decision] off for 30 days to find a pro bono attorney to file Chapter 11, or to try and implement some of Bob [Gedert’s] plan.” 

Source: National Recycling Coalition, Resource Recycling and WIH Resource Group

If you have any questions about this news or general questions about our diversified services, please contact Bob Wallace, Principal & VP of Client Solutions at WIH Resource Group and Waste Savings, Inc. at admin@wihrg.com

Feel free to visit our websites for additional information on our services at: http://www.wihrg.com and http://www.wastesavings.net and our daily blog at https://wihresourcegroup.wordpress.com

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North American Leaders Support Using Ozone Treaty to Cut ‘Potent Greenhouse Gases’


Yesterday the leaders of the U.S., Canada, and Mexico committed to “work together under the Montreal Protocol to phase down the use of HFCs and bring about significant reductions of this potent greenhouse gas.”  The agreement is included in the Leaders Declaration on Climate Change and Energy from the North American Summit in Guadalajara, Mexico.

“Phasing down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol is a brilliant strategy,” said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development. “This is the treaty that never fails to deliver.  It’s already phased out 96 chemicals by 97%, and it’s ready to tackle these super greenhouse gases.”

The campaign to tackle HFCs began earlier this year with a proposal by two small island nations, the Federated States of Micronesia and Mauritius. “The support of North America leaders is appreciated,” said Ambassador Yosiwo George from the Federated States of Micronesia.  “It brings strong reinforcements and gives our islands a fighting chance to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol.”

However, success of the proposal will be largely in the hands of the U.S. “These island nations need the muscle of the U.S. to get an agreement,” added Zaelke. “This is a great opportunity for the Administration to show its leadership on climate change.”

The North American leaders’ commitment to the Montreal Protocol follows the commitment made by G8 leaders in July to “work with our partners to ensure that HFC emissions reductions are achieved under the appropriate framework….”

Since April, the HFC phase-down proposal has gained eight additional co-sponsors from fellow island nations, all of which are promoting this fast-action measure as a way to stave off abrupt climate change and rising sea levels that threaten their homes and cultures. The final negotiations on the islands’ proposal will take place this November at the Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in Port Ghalib, Egypt.

A recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that HFCs (used widely in refrigeration and air conditioning applications) could grow to almost 45 percent of CO2 emissions by 2050 under a 2˚C scenario where CO2 emissions are stabilized at 450 ppm. Although downstream emissions of HFCs are currently included under the Kyoto Protocol, quicker and more cost-effective reductions could be achieved by using the Montreal Protocol to control upstream production and consumption of HFCs. Because HFCs are short-lived (about a decade in the atmosphere in contrast to centuries for CO2), cutting these emissions now would result in huge climate benefits in the near term.

With the tipping points for abrupt climate change on the horizon, there is an even greater need for ‘fast-action’ measures that can be implemented now, with current technology. Other near-term actions include reducing emissions of black carbon soot, methane, and tropospheric ozone, and expanding bio-sequestration through production of biochar.

Source: The Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development (IGSD)

If you have any questions about this news or general questions about our diversified services, please contact Bob Wallace, Principal & VP of Client Solutions at WIH Resource Group and Waste Savings, Inc. at admin@wihrg.com

Feel free to visit our websites for additional information on our services at: http://www.wihrg.com and http://www.wastesavings.net and our daily blog at https://wihresourcegroup.wordpress.com

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